Over 100,000 murdered
Separation and deportation
Gradually the Dutch Jews were separated from the rest of the population. Public facilities were closed to Jews. Separate Jewish schools were opened. At the end of April 1942, all Jews were required to wear a Star of David.
That summer the deportations began. Jews were required to report for 'employment in Germany'. Many ignored the call-ups despite the severe threats. They were driven from their homes during round-ups.
The installation of a Joodse Raad [Jewish Council] made the Jews themselves responsible for the publication and, to a certain extent, execution of the measures. The Council granted proofs of deferment. But those with deferments were only given a place at the end of the queue.
Joseph Corper, a Jewish man in hiding, wrote:
'In early November, the various stamps began to lose their effectiveness, and even those with a so-called Jewish Council stamp were transported to Germany.'
Via the Hollandse Schouwburg [Holland Theatre] in Amsterdam and the Westerbork transit camp, the occupiers deported 107,000 Jews to concentration camps, such as Auschwitz and Sobibor. Only 5,500 of these were to survive. A total of almost 80% of the Jewish population was murdered.
Farewell card thrown from the deportation train
Many people in camp Westerbork carried addressed postcards with them. When they had to leave, they wrote the cards and threw them out through the cracks of the packed goods trains, in the hope that someone would find them and post them.